This is the Chapter that we will be studying from Monday 11, 2022 to Friday 15th, 2022
prakṛteḥ puruṣasya ca
svarūpaṁ lakṣyate ’mīṣāṁ
yathā sāṅkhyeṣu kathitaṁ
yan-mūlaṁ tat pracakṣate
bhakti-yogasya me mārgaṁ
brūhi vistaraśaḥ prabho
— Devahūti said; — symptoms; - — of the mahat-tattva and so on; — of material nature; — of the spirit; — and; — the nature; — is described; — of those; — by which; - - — the true nature of them; — as; — in Sāṅkhya philosophy; — is explained; — of which; — ultimate end; — that; — they call; - — of devotional service; — to me; — the path; — please explain; — at length; — my dear Lord Kapila.
Devahūti inquired: My dear Lord, You have already very scientifically described the symptoms of the total material nature and the characteristics of the spirit according to the Sāṅkhya system of philosophy. Now I shall request You to explain the path of devotional service, which is the ultimate end of all philosophical systems.
virāgo yena puruṣo
bhagavan sarvato bhavet
vividhā mama saṁsṛtīḥ
— detached; — by which; — a person; — my dear Lord; — completely; — may become; — please describe; - — for the people in general; — manifold; — for myself; — repetition of birth and death.
Devahūti continued: My dear Lord, please also describe in detail, both for me and for people in general, the continual process of birth and death, for by hearing of such calamities we may become detached from the activities of this material world.
pareṣāṁ ca parasya te
svarūpaṁ bata kurvanti
yad-dhetoḥ kuśalaṁ janāḥ
— of time; - — a representation of the Lord; — of all others; — and; — the chief; — of You; — the nature; — oh; — perform; - — by whose influence; — pious activities; — people in general.
Please also describe eternal time, which is a representation of Your form and by whose influence people in general engage in the performance of pious activities.
lokasya mithyābhimater acakṣuṣaś
ciraṁ prasuptasya tamasy anāśraye
śrāntasya karmasv anuviddhayā dhiyā
tvam āvirāsīḥ kila yoga-bhāskaraḥ
— of the living entities; - — deluded by false ego; — blind; — for a very long time; — sleeping; — in darkness; — without shelter; — fatigued; — to material activities; — attached; — with the intelligence; — You; — have appeared; — indeed; — of the yoga system; — the sun.
My dear Lord, You are just like the sun, for You illuminate the darkness of the conditional life of the living entities. Because their eyes of knowledge are not open, they are sleeping eternally in that darkness without Your shelter, and therefore they are falsely engaged by the actions and reactions of their material activities, and they appear to be very fatigued.
iti mātur vacaḥ ślakṣṇaṁ
prītas tāṁ karuṇārditaḥ
— Maitreya said; — thus; — of His mother; — the words; — gentle; — welcoming; - — the great sage Kapila; — spoke; - — O best among the Kurus, Vidura; — pleased; — to her; — with compassion; — moved.
Śrī Maitreya said: O best amongst the Kurus, the great sage Kapila, moved by great compassion and pleased by the words of His glorious mother, spoke as follows.
mārgair bhāmini bhāvyate
puṁsāṁ bhāvo vibhidyate
- — the Personality of Godhead replied; - — devotional service; - — multifarious; — with paths; — O noble lady; — is manifest; — nature; — qualities; — in terms of behavior; — of the executors; — the appearance; — is divided.
Lord Kapila, the Personality of Godhead, replied: O noble lady, there are multifarious paths of devotional service in terms of the different qualities of the executor.
abhisandhāya yo hiṁsāṁ
dambhaṁ mātsaryam eva vā
saṁrambhī bhinna-dṛg bhāvaṁ
mayi kuryāt sa tāmasaḥ
— having in view; — he who; — violence; — pride; — envy; — indeed; — or; — angry; — separate; — whose vision; — devotional service; — to Me; — may do; — he; — in the mode of ignorance.
Devotional service executed by a person who is envious, proud, violent and angry, and who is a separatist, is considered to be in the mode of darkness.
yaśa aiśvaryam eva vā
arcādāv arcayed yo māṁ
pṛthag-bhāvaḥ sa rājasaḥ
— sense objects; — aiming at; — fame; — opulence; — indeed; — or; - — in worship of the Deity and so on; — may worship; — he who; — Me; - — a separatist; — he; — in the mode of passion.
The worship of Deities in the temple by a separatist, with a motive for material enjoyment, fame and opulence, is devotion in the mode of passion.
parasmin vā tad-arpaṇam
yajed yaṣṭavyam iti vā
pṛthag-bhāvaḥ sa sāttvikaḥ
— fruitive activities; — freeing himself from; — with the purpose of; — to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; — or; - — offering the result of activities; — may worship; — to be worshiped; — thus; — or; - — separatist; — he; — in the mode of goodness.
When a devotee worships the Supreme Personality of Godhead and offers the results of his activities in order to free himself from the inebrieties of fruitive activities, his devotion is in the mode of goodness.
yathā gaṅgāmbhaso ’mbudhau
nirguṇasya hy udāhṛtam
yā bhaktiḥ puruṣottame
— of Me; — qualities; — by hearing; — just; — towards Me; - - — residing in everyone’s heart; - — the heart’s course; — continuous; — as; — of the Ganges; — of the water; — towards the ocean; — the manifestation; - — of devotional service; — unadulterated; — indeed; — exhibited; — causeless; — not separated; — which; — devotional service; - — towards the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
The manifestation of unadulterated devotional service is exhibited when one’s mind is at once attracted to hearing the transcendental name and qualities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is residing in everyone’s heart. Just as the water of the Ganges flows naturally down towards the ocean, such devotional ecstasy, uninterrupted by any material condition, flows towards the Supreme Lord.
sārūpyaikatvam apy uta
dīyamānaṁ na gṛhṇanti
vinā mat-sevanaṁ janāḥ
— living on the same planet; — having the same opulence; — to be a personal associate; — having the same bodily features; — oneness; — also; — even; — being offered; — not; — do accept; — without; — My; — devotional service; — pure devotees.
A pure devotee does not accept any kind of liberation — sālokya, sārṣṭi, sāmīpya, sārūpya or ekatva — even though they are offered by the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
sa eva bhakti-yogākhya
— this; — indeed; - — devotional service; — called; — the highest platform; — explained; — by which; — overcoming; - — the three modes of material nature; - — to My transcendental stage; — one attains.
By attaining the highest platform of devotional service, as I have explained, one can overcome the influence of the three modes of material nature and be situated in the transcendental stage, as is the Lord.
— executed; — without attachment to the result; - — by one’s prescribed duties; — glorious; - — by devotional activities; — auspicious; — without; — excessive violence; — regularly.
A devotee must execute his prescribed duties, which are glorious, without material profit. Without excessive violence, one should regularly perform one’s devotional activities.
— My; — statue; — seeing; — touching; — worshiping; — praying to; — by offering obeisances; — in all living entities; — of Me; — with thought; — by the mode of goodness; — with detachment; — and.
The devotee should regularly see My statues in the temple, touch My lotus feet and offer worshipable paraphernalia and prayer. He should see in the spirit of renunciation, from the mode of goodness, and see every living entity as spiritual.
yamena niyamena ca
— to the great souls; - — with great respect; — to the poor; — with compassion; — with friendship; — also; — certainly; - — to persons who are equals; — with control of the senses; — with regulation; — and.
The pure devotee should execute devotional service by giving the greatest respect to the spiritual master and the ācāryas. He should be compassionate to the poor and make friendship with persons who are his equals, but all his activities should be executed under regulation and with control of the senses.
nāma-saṅkīrtanāc ca me
— spiritual matters; — from hearing; - — from chanting the holy name; — and; — My; — with straightforward behavior; - — with association of saintly persons; — without false ego; — thus.
A devotee should always try to hear about spiritual matters and should always utilize his time in chanting the holy name of the Lord. His behavior should always be straightforward and simple, and although he is not envious but friendly to everyone, he should avoid the company of persons who are not spiritually advanced.
mad-dharmaṇo guṇair etaiḥ
śruta-mātra-guṇaṁ hi mām
- — of My devotee; — with the attributes; — these; — completely purified; — consciousness; — of a person; — instantly; — approaches; — by hearing; — simply; — quality; — certainly; — Me.
When one is fully qualified with all these transcendental attributes and his consciousness is thus completely purified, he is immediately attracted simply by hearing My name or hearing of My transcendental quality.
yathā vāta-ratho ghrāṇam
āvṛṅkte gandha āśayāt
evaṁ yoga-rataṁ ceta
ātmānam avikāri yat
— as; — of air; — the chariot; — sense of smell; — catches; — aroma; — from the source; — similarly; - — engaged in devotional service; — consciousness; — the Supreme Soul; — unchanging; — which.
As the chariot of air carries an aroma from its source and immediately catches the sense of smell, similarly, one who constantly engages in devotional service, in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, can catch the Supreme Soul, who is equally present everywhere.
ahaṁ sarveṣu bhūteṣu
tam avajñāya māṁ martyaḥ
— I; — in all; — living entities; - — the Supersoul in all beings; — situated; — always; — that Supersoul; — disregarding; — Me; — a mortal man; — performs; — of worship of the Deity; — imitation.
I am present in every living entity as the Supersoul. If someone neglects or disregards that Supersoul everywhere and engages himself in the worship of the Deity in the temple, that is simply imitation.
yo māṁ sarveṣu bhūteṣu
santam ātmānam īśvaram
hitvārcāṁ bhajate mauḍhyād
bhasmany eva juhoti saḥ
— one who; — Me; — in all; — living entities; — being present; — the Paramātmā; — the Supreme Lord; — disregarding; — the Deity; — worships; — because of ignorance; — into ashes; — only; — offers oblations; — he.
One who worships the Deity of Godhead in the temples but does not know that the Supreme Lord, as Paramātmā, is situated in every living entity’s heart, must be in ignorance and is compared to one who offers oblations into ashes.
dviṣataḥ para-kāye māṁ
na manaḥ śāntim ṛcchati
— of one who is envious; - — towards the body of another; — unto Me; — offering respect; - — of a separatist; — towards living entities; - — of one who is inimical; — not; — the mind; — peace; — attains.
One who offers Me respect but is envious of the bodies of others and is therefore a separatist never attains peace of mind, because of his inimical behavior towards other living entities.
aham uccāvacair dravyaiḥ
naiva tuṣye ’rcito ’rcāyāṁ
— I; - — with various; — paraphernalia; — by religious rituals; — accomplished; — O sinless mother; — not; — certainly; — am pleased; — worshiped; — in the Deity form; - — to other living entities; — with those who are disrespectful.
My dear mother, even if he worships with proper rituals and paraphernalia, a person who is ignorant of My presence in all living entities never pleases Me by the worship of My Deities in the temple.
arcādāv arcayet tāvad
īśvaraṁ māṁ sva-karma-kṛt
yāvan na veda sva-hṛdi
- — beginning with worship of the Deity; — one should worship; — so long; — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; — Me; — his own; — prescribed duties; — performing; — as long as; — not; — he realizes; - — in his own heart; - — in all living entities; — situated.
Performing his prescribed duties, one should worship the Deity of the Supreme Personality of Godhead until one realizes My presence in his own heart and in the hearts of other living entities as well.
ātmanaś ca parasyāpi
yaḥ karoty antarodaram
tasya bhinna-dṛśo mṛtyur
vidadhe bhayam ulbaṇam
— of himself; — and; — of another; — also; — one who; — discriminates; — between; — the body; — of him; - — having a differential outlook; — as death; — I cause; — fear; — great.
As the blazing fire of death, I cause great fear to whoever makes the least discrimination between himself and other living entities because of a differential outlook.
atha māṁ sarva-bhūteṣu
— therefore; — Me; - — in all creatures; - — the Self in all beings; - — abiding; — one should propitiate; - — through charity and respect; — through friendship; — equal; — by viewing.
Therefore, through charitable gifts and attention, as well as through friendly behavior and by viewing all to be alike, one should propitiate Me, who abide in all creatures as their very Self.
jīvāḥ śreṣṭhā hy ajīvānāṁ
tataḥ prāṇa-bhṛtaḥ śubhe
tataḥ sa-cittāḥ pravarās
— living entities; — better; — indeed; — than inanimate objects; — than them; - — entities with life symptoms; — O blessed mother; — than them; - — entities with developed consciousness; — better; — than them; — and; - — those with sense perception.
Living entities are superior to inanimate objects, O blessed mother, and among them, living entities who display life symptoms are better. Animals with developed consciousness are better than them, and better still are those who have developed sense perception.
tebhyo gandha-vidaḥ śreṣṭhās
tataḥ śabda-vido varāḥ
— among them; — moreover; - — than those perceiving touch; — better; - — those perceiving taste; — than them; - — those perceiving smell; — better; — than them; - — those perceiving sound; — better.
Among the living entities who have developed sense perception, those who have developed the sense of taste are better than those who have developed only the sense of touch. Better than them are those who have developed the sense of smell, and better still are those who have developed the sense of hearing.
teṣāṁ bahu-padāḥ śreṣṭhāś
catuṣ-pādas tato dvi-pāt
- — distinctions of form; — those who perceive; — than them; — than them; — and; — in both jaws; — those with teeth; — of them; - — those who have many legs; — better; - — four-legged; — than them; - — two-legged.
Better than those living entities who can perceive sound are those who can distinguish between one form and another. Better than them are those who have developed upper and lower sets of teeth, and better still are those who have many legs. Better than them are the quadrupeds, and better still are the human beings.
tato varṇāś ca catvāras
teṣāṁ brāhmaṇa uttamaḥ
brāhmaṇeṣv api veda-jño
hy artha-jño ’bhyadhikas tataḥ
— among them; — classes; — and; — four; — of them; — a brāhmaṇa; — best; — among the brāhmaṇas; — moreover; — the Vedas; — one who knows; — certainly; — the purpose; — one who knows; — better; — than him.
Among human beings, the society which is divided according to quality and work is best, and in that society, the intelligent men, who are designated as brāhmaṇas, are best. Among the brāhmaṇas, one who has studied the Vedas is the best, and among the brāhmaṇas who have studied the Vedas, one who knows the actual purport of Veda is the best.
tataḥ śreyān sva-karma-kṛt
mukta-saṅgas tato bhūyān
adogdhā dharmam ātmanaḥ
- — than one who knows the purpose of the Vedas; — doubts; — one who cuts off; — than him; — better; - — his prescribed duties; — one who executes; - — liberated from material association; — than him; — better; — not executing; — devotional service; — for himself.
Better than the brāhmaṇa who knows the purpose of the Vedas is he who can dissipate all doubts, and better than him is one who strictly follows the brahminical principles. Better than him is one who is liberated from all material contamination, and better than him is a pure devotee, who executes devotional service without expectation of reward.
tasmān mayy arpitāśeṣa-
mayy arpitātmanaḥ puṁso
na paśyāmi paraṁ bhūtam
— than him; — unto Me; — offered; — all; — actions; — wealth; — life, soul; — without cessation; — unto Me; — offered; — whose mind; — than a person; — unto Me; — dedicated; — whose activities; — not; — I see; — greater; — living entity; — without proprietorship; — same; — whose vision.
Therefore I do not find a greater person than he who has no interest outside of Mine and who therefore engages and dedicates all his activities and all his life — everything — unto Me without cessation.
praviṣṭo bhagavān iti
— with the mind; — to these; — living entities; — he offers respects; - — showing regard; — the controller; — of the living entities; — by His expansion as the Supersoul; — has entered; — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; — thus.
Such a perfect devotee offers respects to every living entity because he is under the firm conviction that the Supreme Personality of Godhead has entered the body of every living entity as the Supersoul, or controller.
bhakti-yogaś ca yogaś ca
mayā mānavy udīritaḥ
puruṣaḥ puruṣaṁ vrajet
- — devotional service; — and; — mystic yoga; — also; — by Me; — O daughter of Manu; — described; — of which two; — by either one; — alone; — a person; — the Supreme Person; — can achieve.
My dear mother, O daughter of Manu, a devotee who applies the science of devotional service and mystic yoga in this way can achieve the abode of the Supreme Person simply by that devotional service.
etad bhagavato rūpaṁ
paraṁ pradhānaṁ puruṣaṁ
— this; — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; — form; — of Brahman; - — of Paramātmā; — transcendental; — chief; — personality; — spiritual; - — whose activities.
This puruṣa whom the individual soul must approach is the eternal form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is known as Brahman and Paramātmā. He is the transcendental chief personality, and His activities are all spiritual.
kāla ity abhidhīyate
yato bhinna-dṛśāṁ bhayam
- — of the transformation of forms; — the cause; — divine; — time; — thus; — is known; — of living entities; - — beginning with Lord Brahmā; — because of which; - — with separate vision; — fear.
The time factor, who causes the transformation of the various material manifestations, is another feature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Anyone who does not know that time is the same Supreme Personality is afraid of the time factor.
yo ’ntaḥ praviśya bhūtāni
bhūtair atty akhilāśrayaḥ
sa viṣṇv-ākhyo ’dhiyajño ’sau
kālaḥ kalayatāṁ prabhuḥ
— He who; — within; — entering; — living entities; — by living entities; — annihilates; — of everyone; — the support; — He; — Viṣṇu; — named; — the enjoyer of all sacrifices; — that; — time factor; — of all masters; — the master.
Lord Viṣṇu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the enjoyer of all sacrifices, is the time factor and the master of all masters. He enters everyone’s heart, He is the support of everyone, and He causes every being to be annihilated by another.
na cāsya kaścid dayito
na dveṣyo na ca bāndhavaḥ
āviśaty apramatto ’sau
pramattaṁ janam anta-kṛt
— not; — and; — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; — anyone; — dear; — not; — enemy; — not; — and; — friend; — approaches; — attentive; — He; — inattentive; — persons; - — the destroyer.
No one is dear to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, nor is anyone His enemy or friend. But He gives inspiration to those who have not forgotten Him and destroys those who have.
yad-bhayād vāti vāto ’yaṁ
sūryas tapati yad-bhayāt
yad-bhayād varṣate devo
bha-gaṇo bhāti yad-bhayāt
— of whom (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); — out of fear; — blows; — the wind; — this; — sun; — shines; — of whom; — out of fear; — of whom; — out of fear; — sends rains; — the god of rain; - — the host of heavenly bodies; — shine; — of whom; — out of fear.
Out of fear of the Supreme Personality of Godhead the wind blows, out of fear of Him the sun shines, out of fear of Him the rain pours forth showers, and out of fear of Him the host of heavenly bodies shed their luster.
yad vanaspatayo bhītā
latāś cauṣadhibhiḥ saha
sve sve kāle ’bhigṛhṇanti
puṣpāṇi ca phalāni ca
— because of whom; - — the trees; — fearful; — creepers; — and; — herbs; — with; — each in its own season; — bear; — flowers; — and; — fruits; — also.
Out of fear of the Supreme Personality of Godhead the trees, creepers, herbs and seasonal plants and flowers blossom and fructify, each in its own season.
sravanti sarito bhītā
notsarpaty udadhir yataḥ
agnir indhe sa-giribhir
bhūr na majjati yad-bhayāt
— flow; — rivers; — fearful; — not; — overflows; - — the ocean; — because of whom; — fire; — burns; - — with its mountains; — the earth; — not; — sinks; — of whom; — out of fear.
Out of fear of the Supreme Personality of Godhead the rivers flow, and the ocean never overflows. Out of fear of Him only does fire burn and does the earth, with its mountains, not sink in the water of the universe.
nabho dadāti śvasatāṁ
padaṁ yan-niyamād adaḥ
lokaṁ sva-dehaṁ tanute
mahān saptabhir āvṛtam
— the sky; — gives; — to the living entities; — abode; — of whom (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); — under the control; — that; — the universe; - — own body; — expands; — the mahat-tattva; — with the seven (layers); — covered.
Subject to the control of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the sky allows outer space to accommodate all the various planets, which hold innumerable living entities. The total universal body expands with its seven coverings under His supreme control.
sargādiṣv asya yad-bhayāt
vartante ’nuyugaṁ yeṣāṁ
vaśa etac carācaram
— the modes of material nature; — in charge of; — the demigods; - — in the matter of creation and so on; — of this world; - — out of fear of whom; — carry out functions; — according to the yugas; — of whom; — under the control; — this; - — everything animate and inanimate.
Out of fear of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the directing demigods in charge of the modes of material nature carry out the functions of creation, maintenance and destruction; everything animate and inanimate within this material world is under their control.
so ’nanto ’nta-karaḥ kālo
’nādir ādi-kṛd avyayaḥ
janaṁ janena janayan
— that; — endless; - — destroyer; — time; — without beginning; - — the creator; — not liable to change; — persons; — by persons; — creating; — destroying; — by death; — the lord of death.
The eternal time factor has no beginning and no end. It is the representative of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the maker of the criminal world. It brings about the end of the phenomenal world, it carries on the work of creation by bringing one individual into existence from another, and likewise it dissolves the universe by destroying even the lord of death, Yamarāja.